This discrepancy can be associated with the fact that a handful of Chinese studies 15 studies were selected by Thomas et al. The coefficients for the regression of work performance on ADHD in these models can be interpreted as the incrementally higher number of days of impaired role performance in the past 30 days associated with ADHD.
Four investigators L. ADHD can be counted as a major public health issue due to its prevalence and chronic nature, and its potential to interfere with different areas of developmental relevance [ 9 ]. In children with ADHD, there is a general reduction of volume in certain brain structures, with a proportionally greater decrease in the volume in the left-sided prefrontal cortex.
As one requirement for a diagnosis of ADHD is symptom onset in childhood, it was necessary to ask respondents to provide retrospective reports about their childhood symptoms of inattention and impulsivity.
While our systematic review included studies specifically conducted in Mainland China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan, no difference was detected in the ADHD prevalence estimates among the three regions after controlling for other factors of the heterogeneity across studies.Role performance was assessed in the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule WHO-DAS , 32 a battery that includes questions about number of days out of role and quantity-quality of role performance in the 30 days before interview. Addictive behavior such as substance abuse and gambling are common. This method is discussed in more detail elsewhere. The distribution of ADHD etiologic factors may also have varied, leading to true differences in subtype predominance. The pooled prevalence of ADHD was 6. A study was considered to have a high overall risk of bias if 3 criteria or less were met, moderate risk of bias if 4 to 6 criteria were met, and low risk of bias if 7 to 10 criteria were met. Each included study was judged by 10 items that assess measurement bias, selection bias, and bias related to the analysis all rated as either high or low risk and an overall assessment of risk of bias rated as low, moderate, or high risk. The ascending academic pressure emanate from the fierce Chinese educational competition may be associated with the increase in the number of Chinese school-aged children and adolescents with ADHD symptoms. However, since the mixed-age participants in different grades mostly constituted the selected samples in our review, we were limited to divide the school-aged children and adolescents into elementary school, middle school, and high school children groups to discern the differences in ADHD prevalence among those subgroups. The pooled prevalence rates were 5.
On the contrary, our pooled ADHD prevalence was highly representative of Chinese children and adolescents, an apparent advantage to generate better population-based benchmarks for Chinese professionals and the public, and to be beneficial for the accurate estimation of the worldwide ADHD prevalence.
Conclusions This is one of the few comprehensive systematic reviews of ADHD prevalence estimates among Chinese children and adolescents in Mainland China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan over the past three decades.
As imaging studies of the brain do not give consistent results between individuals, they are only used for research purposes and not diagnosis. Children with more symptoms of ADHD, including impulsiveness or restlessness, have significantly lower math and reading scores on standardized tests, increased probability of class repetition, enrollment in special education, and delinquency, which includes behaviours such as stealing, hitting people, or using drugs [ 10 ].
If the text was unclear, a high risk of bias was then recorded.However, since the mixed-age participants in different grades mostly constituted the selected samples in our review, we were limited to divide the school-aged children and adolescents into elementary school, middle school, and high school children groups to discern the differences in ADHD prevalence among those subgroups. The institutional review board of Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center determined this study to be exempt from its review. The summary measure was truncated at 30 in the uncommon case where the sum exceeded All Part I respondents who met criteria for a core disorder plus a probability sub-sample of others were administered Part II, which assessed disorders of secondary interest and a wide range of correlates. Consistent with the result that children from low-socioeconomic status SES backgrounds were more likely to exhibit ADHD symptoms than their peers from high-SES backgrounds 33 , 34 , children in rural areas showed a significantly higher ADHD prevalence than their counterparts in urban areas in our study. Dummy variables were used in our univariate and multivariate meta-regression analyses. The school performance of each pupil in the core subjects such as Mathematics, Science and English was also obtained from the school registers. Stepwise was used to select the significant variables to the model. There was also a trend toward increased regular medication use in older children. Additionally, 6 studies did not report their sources of screening information, thus the variable source of information was dropped as well. It was conducted among pupils in 10 public and private schools between the ages of 6 and 12 in the classes of primary 1 to 6. All respondents completed Part I, which contained core diagnostic assessments.
Table 5. The respondents within this sub-sample who were classified as meeting criteria for DSM-IV Adult ADHD are reported in the column labeled n1, while the total sub-sample of employed Part II respondents in the age range 18—44 are reported in the column labeled n2.
Poor children are most likely to meet criteria for ADHD yet are least likely to receive consistent pharmacotherapy.