In the CBA approach, the effects of public investments are valued in monetary terms and expressed as costs and benefits to represent an overall aggregated value of individual well-being.
The literature may also cover some other impacts and indicators to be included in transport policy and project evaluations. The policies and their impacts—namely costs and benefits—can be conflicting for particular groups.
For instance, it evaluates the costs and benefits of transport provisions by carrying out empirical research in a given urban area in a specified time period.
Another issue is the changes in tax revenues resulting from shift of demand among various modes of transportation users. In terms of positive externalities, transport infrastructure as a public investment could directly promote economic growth and also indirectly increase the economy through spillover effects such as knowledge spillover effect and technology spillover effect.
Summary of impacts and indicators for the transport infrastructure evaluation. In addition, goals such as low-carbon, resilient and sustainable development should not be ignored when the transportation network is expanded [ 3 ]. For the transport sector, apart from cost-benefit, design and investment analyses, environmental impacts such as CO2 emission and air quality are the main evaluation criteria [ 34 ].